Sardar Payinda Khan Muhammadzai, Amir ul-Umara

By the 1820's, the core regions of the Sadozai empire - which included Kashmire, Punjab, Sind, Baluchistan, and Khurasan - broke apart into several independent states. Kabul and Kandahar were held by Muhammadzai brothers. The story of Payinda Khan starts in 1760. When Ahmad Shah set out to erect a new capital in the vicinity of Kandahar in 1760, many descendant force him to postpone his planes by refusing to let him build on their land. In 1799, Sardar Payinda Khan Muhammadzai created an unsuccessful plot hedged in Kandahar with a number of Durrani and Pashtun nobles, aimed at deposing the Shah.

The most influential section of the Barakzais were the Muhammadzais. Payinda Khan greatly contributed to the increase of Muhammadzai numbers. Timur Shah become king in 1770, he would give up his leadership of the Barakzai's to Payinda Khan, Haji Jamal's fourth son. He would award Payinda Khan the title of "Sarafraz Khan" in 1775. Payinda Khan would then assume a large and active role in all governmental matters. After he lead an army that successfully contained a rebellion in Kashmir and collected the revenues of Quetta and Sialkot, he was awarded the leadership (sardari) of the Ghilzais. The Ghilzais are an Afghan-Pashtun tribe with reputed descendence in part from the Khilji Turks who entered Afghanistan in the 10th Century; they are one of the largest tribes in Afghanistan. Timor Shah's throne was only protected by the power of Payinda Khan, who would also quell rebellions against the throne. As a result, he was awarded the sardarship over all tribal groups in addition to the Ghilzais, Durranis, Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Hazaras.

Payinda Khan viewed himself first and foremost as a tribal leader who derived his strength from his standing among his own kinsmen. He would oppose Shah Zaman's efforts to weaken the family. This move proved his loyalty and integrity, but costed him dearly politically. He was removed as chief minister and stripped of all offices. He joined other chiefs in a plot aiming to replace Shah Zaman with his brother Shahzada Shuja. Shah Zaman, listening to his advisors, executed the powerful Payinda Khan. Thus, Shah Zaman aimed at curtailing Muhammadzai power through the execution of the great-grandfather of the Tarzi Family, but he failed miserably. Rather than disappearing from the political arena, Payinda Khan's sons increasingly dominated the politics of Afghanistan from the turn of the century on until present day.

After the death of Payinda Khan an order was given to arrest all Barakzai leaders, Payinda Khan's family escaped to Iran.  In the following years, they revenged Payinda Khan's death by overthrowing Shah Zaman by blinding and deafing him. The family put Shah Mahmud to the throne. Payinda Khan's son, Fatih Khan would lead the take over and reached as far as Kashmir. His brother Muhammad Azim Khan became ruler of Peshawar in 1809. Fatih Khan would rule over Kashmir after his conquest and deposal of Ata Muhammad Khan Bamizai. Sardar Rahmdil Khan, the father of Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi and grandfather of the Tarzi Family, would rule over Baluchistan and Kandahar, he resided at Shikarpur.
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